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This resource list provides access to a number of organizations, some of them for-profit in nature, that offer services related to school safety in the key areas of Prepare, Respond and Recover, as well as links to recent publications in those areas. Professional associations and federal agencies that provide overarching services in one or more of those areas are listed in separate sections, as are relevant products from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) System and articles published in its award-winning newsletter, TechBeat.

This resources section should not be considered all inclusive; you may locate others, particularly those specific to your state or local area, by using a search engine. If you need additional assistance with locating resources, contact NLECTC at (800) 248-2742 or e-mail

Because the content and organization of websites change often, the URLs listed for organizations usually take users to a home page. Publication links lead to the listed publications, but please remember that Web addresses change frequently. If a listed address no longer works, try locating the publication by using a search engine.

Professional Associations

  • International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA) targets colleges, universities, campus law enforcement professionals and municipal law enforcement professionals. IACLEA advances public safety for educational institutions by providing educational resources, advocacy and professional development.
  • International Association of Chiefs of Police is a nonprofit professional association that offers training, information resources, mentoring, conferences, assessment tools and more on topics that include school safety and active threat response.
  • National Association of School Resource Officers (NASRO) is a nonprofit organization that offers basic and advanced training for school-based law enforcement officers, school administrators and school security/safety professionals, and specialized training in legal issues affecting school safety.
  • National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) includes information on school safety on its site.
  • National Association of School Safety and Law Enforcement Officials (NASSLEO) promotes appropriate legislation on school violence and the safe school environment, offers safety and security planning and training, and provides school districts and the public with accurate, authoritative information on issues relating to school-based crime and violence. NASSLEO members include school resource officers and police officers, school security officers and school security consultants.
  • National Tactical Officers Association is a nonprofit professional association that provides training and information resources on topics that include school violence, emergency tactical medical response, crisis response and hostage negotiation.
  • School Safety Advocacy Council (SSAC) advocates public policy in legislative and regulatory arenas, and works to promote safe and secure school and community environments.

Federal Government Agencies

  • National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a resource provided by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and other U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) agencies, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). NCJRS has a large variety of research information, including materials on school safety and other issues relevant to the criminal justice community.
  • National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) System, funded by NIJ, works directly with federal, state and local government agencies; community leaders; and scientists to foster technological innovations that result in new products, services, systems and strategies for the nation’s criminal justice professionals.
  • National Threat Assessment Center (NTAC), a program of the U.S. Secret Service, provides threat assessment leadership and guidance.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative is a unique federal grant-making program from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) designed to prevent violence and substance abuse among the nation’s youth, schools and communities.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program is the federal government’s vehicle for reducing school violence as well as drug, alcohol and tobacco use through education and prevention activities.
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) School Safety enhances school safety by offering funding, training and resources for efforts such as providing money for emergency preparedness, training school bus drivers in security and hardening school buildings’ vulnerability.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), offers grants and programs that serve the needs of SROs and school safety programs.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) offers grants, funding and resources for school safety programs and SROs.
  • White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) provides publications, resources and grant information on school safety and related issues.


  • Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools (1999). Produced by NIJ, this guide will help school administrators and their colleagues in law enforcement analyze a school's vulnerabilities.
  • ASTRO – Active Shooter Training for the Responding Officer, produced by NIJ, is a Windows-based simulation tool that allows a law enforcement officer to be immersed in active shooter scenarios. The law enforcement officer must make decisions and act on those decisions to bring an end to the threat.
  • It Can Happen Here (2009), produced by the NIJ Weapons and Protective Systems Technology Center of Excellence, is a documentary designed to inform and compel audiences of school safety stakeholders to prepare for man-made and natural emergencies. This video also provides resources needed to develop a new school safety plan, and to assess and improve existing plans through relationship building and technology.
  • Triple Play School Safety Combo. This CD-ROM from the NLECTC System contains “A Critical Incident: What to Do in the First 20 Minutes,” a 25-minute video produced by the North Carolina Office of the Attorney General and the U.S. Department of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s Center for the Prevention of School Violence; “School Crime Operations Package (School COP),” a software application for entering, analyzing and mapping incidents that occur in and around schools; and “School Critical Incident Planning – Generator (SCIP-G),” a tool that provides step-by-step guidance for creating a plan, using the most widely accepted law enforcement practices and procedures as the foundation.

TechBeat Articles

  • "Commanding the Incident" (Winter 2007). Incident Commander is a PC-based software simulation that models real-world situations within a community, allowing for training at the management level during a critical incident.
  • "Early Warning for Campus Emergencies" (Winter 2009). The THOR-8L, a new long-range directed acoustic device developed at Penn State University, can be heard, clearly and distinctly, three-quarters of a mile away from the broadcast site.
  • "Managing Gangs in Schools" (Winter 2012). Gang activity in the United States is unlimited in its reach. It cuts across urban, suburban and rural jurisdictions and filters into schools.
  • "Popular Video Educates on School Safety" (Summer 2011). According to the co-producers of It Can Happen Here, this documentary puts a face on school safety by informing and encouraging stakeholders in school safety to prepare for emergencies. (See also entry for It Can Happen Here under Publications.)
  • "Proactive Planning for Active Shooter Situations" (Spring 2011). This article describes how a Pennsylvania police department has crafted a program to educate community organizations such as schools and hospitals to prepare in the event the unthinkable happens: a gunman in their midst.
  • "Rapid Responder Fills in the Blind Spots" (Summer 2008). This article details how the Claremont (Calif.) Police Department uses Rapid Responder, an interactive planning tool, to help with plans to make area schools safer.
  • "SCORMAP Gets High Marks" (Spring 2004). This articles describes SCORMAP, a mapping software program that uses geographic information systems (GIS) and computer assisted drawing (CAD) technologies to put detailed information at school administrators’ fingertips. Its objective is not only to promote school safety but to help administrators, school resource officers and local law enforcement in emergencies.
  • "Tool Provides Information Access for Emergency Response" (Winter 2011). The Kansas City Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) Region, with the Kansas City (Mo.) Police Department serving as the lead agency, produced the Asset Protection and Response System, a sophisticated Internet-based program that can be accessed from desktops, police cruisers and PDAs/smartphones. The initiative plans to willingly share the tool with other departments at no charge.
  • "8,000 Free School COPs and Counting" (Spring 2007). Designed for everyday use, School COP enables SROs, SRO supervisors, school administrators and security officers to track activities and plan coverage. (See also the entry for Triple Play on School Safety under Publications.)


For-Profit Resources

NLECTC provides the following resource links as a service to law enforcement, corrections and forensic science practitioners. These websites may include references to specific commercial products, processes or services by trade name, trademark, manufacturer or otherwise. Their inclusion does not constitute or imply their endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the U.S. Government and it shall not be used for the purposes of advertising, nor to imply the endorsement or recommendation of the U.S. Government.

  • Advanced Interactive Systems provides information on rapid deployment/active shooter tactics training for patrol officers, including basic SWAT and hostage rescue training. Its PRISim Simulator includes school shooter scenarios.
  • Classroom Killers? Hallway Hostages?, written by school safety and crisis preparedness expert Ken Trump, dispels the myths, misconceptions and hype surrounding the lessons learned from national school violence crises and shifting security threat trends.
  • COPsync911 is an emergency alert software that ties schools to their local law enforcement agencies.
  • Direct Action Resource Center offers a tactical emergency medical training program.
  • School Security Services is a national consulting firm specializing in school security and crisis preparedness training, security assessments and related safety consulting for schools.
  • Special Tactical Services provides rapid deployment/active shooter tactics training for patrol officers, basic SWAT and hostage rescue training.


Nonprofit Organizations

  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) training, offered through the National Association of School Resource Officers, provides instruction on using design, management and activity strategies to reduce opportunities for crime to occur, to reduce fear and to improve overall safety of schools. The CPTED concept emphasizes the relationship of the physical environment, the productive use of space and the behavior of people. The course includes a hands-on CPTED evaluation of a school and attendees receive tools to use on their school campus.
  • Educator’s School Safety Network helps keep schools safe by providing training, services and resources to educators, administrators, school-based law enforcement emergency responders and other stakeholders.
  • Hamilton Fish National Institute on School and Community Violence researches develops and evaluates school violence prevention strategies.
  • National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC) is a source of information on crime prevention. Several educational materials deal with school safety and related issues.
  • National School Safety Center (NSSC) provides training, technical assistance and school safety site assessments, and targets both law enforcement professionals and educators.
  • Rural Domestic Preparedness Consortium (RDPC) provides training and resources for emergency first responders with an emphasis on rural areas. RDPC offers AWR 148 Crisis Management for School-based Incidents: Partnering Rural Law Enforcement and Local School Systems at
  • Safe Havens International is committed to helping schools and school systems improve crisis preparedness and campus safety, working with schools on national and international levels in planning, coordinating and evaluating a wide range of school crisis simulations.


  • Active Shooter: How to Respond (October 2008). Because active shooter situations are often over within 10 to 15 minutes (before law enforcement arrives on the scene), individuals must be prepared both mentally and physically to deal with an active shooter situation.
  • Attention Students and Staff, a training tool created by a partnership between the Village of Gurnee Police Department, Woodland School District 50 and the Television Department of Columbia College in Chicago, can be ordered at no charge by law enforcement agencies, public safety agencies and educational institutions across the United States and the world. This video was put together by a group of more than 60 volunteers, including acting/film/TV industry professionals, educators, law enforcement professionals, and college and middle school students. View the trailer at and email or call (847) 599-7080 to order.
  • Bullying in Schools: An Overview (February 2011). This bulletin provides an overview of studies funded by OJJDP, a summary of the researchers’ findings, and recommendations for policy and practice.
  • Comparison of Program Activities and Lessons Learned Among 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs (March 2005). This NIJ-funded document reports the results of a national assessment of SRO programs conducted through a cooperative agreement with NIJ.
  • Components of Comprehensive School and School District Emergency Management Plans (2007). According to this U.S. Department of Education publication, to ensure the safety of students, faculty and staff, schools and school districts nationwide should create comprehensive, multihazard management plans that focus on the four phases of emergency management—prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
  • Defending Childhood: Report of the Attorney General’s National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (2012) offers recommendations for communities dedicated to reducing and/or ending children’s exposure to violence.
  • Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans, a June 2013 publication jointly prepared by the U.S. Departments of Education, Homeland Security, Justice, and Health and Human Services, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the FBI,  focuses on how schools can collaborate with their local government and community partners to plan for potential emergencies through the creation of a school Emergency Operations Plan.
  • A Guide to Developing, Maintaining, and Succeeding With Your School Resource Officer Program (circa 2004). This guide from the COPS Office looks at seven components of an SRO program that often prove problematic.
  • A Guide for Preventing and Responding to School Violence (2010). A joint publication of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, this guide includes information on school violence prevention, threat assessment, crisis planning, major crisis response, dealing with the aftermath and media relations.
  • Indicators of Crime and School Safety (2011). This report establishes, updates and monitors indicators of crime and school safety across the nation. Produced by the U.S. Department of Education.
  • Indicators of School Crime and Safety. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the National Center for Education Statistics release this report annually. It presents data on crime and safety in U.S. schools from the perspectives of students, teachers and administrators. Topics covered include victimization at school, teacher injury, bullying and cyber-bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school.
  • NIOSH Safety Checklist Program for Schools and Other Safety Databases. This CD-ROM, produced in 2010 by the CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, includes recommendations and checklists for establishing a safe schools program.
  • Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities (2007). Taking action now can save lives, prevent injury and minimize property damage in the moments of a crisis, and this guide emphasizes the importance of reviewing and revising school and district plans. Produced by the U.S. Department of Education.
  • Prior Knowledge of Potential School-Based Violence: Information Students Learn May Prevent a Targeted Attack (May 2008). The U.S. Secret Service Safe Schools Initiative examined several issues, including whether most school attacks are planned and what can be done to prevent attacks.
  • Steps for Developing a School Emergency Management Plan (2007). The U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools strongly encourages schools and school districts to develop emergency management plans within the context of the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In addition, schools should collaborate closely with police, fire and emergency services personnel and community partners.
  • Updating and Maintaining School Emergency Management Plans (2007). Developing and implementing comprehensive, multihazard emergency management plans is an ongoing process that must be consistently reinforced and strengthened. Produced by the U.S. Department of Education.
  • What You Need to Know About Drug Testing in Schools, produced by ONDCP in August 2002, assists educators, parents and community leaders in determining whether student drug testing is appropriate for their schools.


For-Profit Publications

NLECTC provides the following resource links as a service to law enforcement, corrections and forensic science practitioners. These websites may include references to specific commercial products, processes or services by trade name, trademark, manufacturer or otherwise. Their inclusion does not constitute or imply their endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the U.S. Government and it shall not be used for the purposes of advertising, nor to imply the endorsement or recommendation of the U.S. Government.

  • A Practical Guide for Crisis Response in Our Schools - A Comprehensive Crisis Response Plan for School Districts (Fifth Edition), produced by School Crisis Response, is a step-by-step, color-coded guideline geared to each responder in order to provide the most expeditious response possible to any emergency.
  • Crisis Management Plans for Schools, produced by J. Berra Engineering, features strategies for preparedness and response for more than 40 different types of emergencies.

Free Publications


  • National Education Association Health Information Network (NEA HIN) is a nonprofit health and safety organization closely aligned with the NEA. Its service include a free downloadable crisis resource guide, School Crisis Guide: Help and Healing in a Time of Crisis.
  • National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) provides information on victim assistance, how to get help, resources for victims/survivors and crisis response specialists as well as information on crisis intervention.
  • Law Enforcement Traumatic Stress: Clinical Syndromes and Intervention Strategies (1999). This article, published by the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, focuses on traumatic stress and intervention strategies for law enforcement officers.